Subject: FAQ: Skinhead (alt.skinheads) Frequently Asked Questions

Date: 9 October 2000
Time: 7:27pm CST
Version: 1.00.a (2000 Update)
Part: 1 of 1

FAQ for skinheads

Questions and Answers about the Skinhead Subculture



1.0: Acknowledgments

This entire document is undergoing a massive update. All of the information that is no longer valid(bad links, email addy's) and the rest will be weeded out, and parts left out will be filled in. I (papaskin) plan to update this by the year 2001 to the best of my ability with the help of my friends all over the world. I will be keep the information here in and giving mad props to these guys for the valiant effort they put forth in this FAQ...from here on out, it's mine and will be updated through me, and not alt.skinheads. If there is a problem with this, email me and don't cry about it, just let me know what's up.

Special thanks to Stephen Martin (, former maintainer of this FAQ who collected/compiled most of this material, and db ( the author of the Skinheads Media List. Furthermore, thanks to the authors of the FAQ, Oi! the FAQ, and wp FAQ, authors of skinhead related WWW pages, and subscribers of the various related newsgroups. Most of all, thanks to all you SKINHEADS around the world who keep the subculture alive and well!

1.1: Introduction

In response to all of those, "What do white laces mean?", "Why do you people hate ?" questions, and because Michelle Chen bemoaned the lack of a proper FAQ, I present the following information on the Skinhead subculture. The information in this FAQ has been culled from the Tomas Willis' FAQ, and Arthur LeBouthillier's White Power FAQ, Gerrard Lindsay's Oi! the FAQ, various postings to alt.skinheads, material from various WWW pages, personal experience, and discussions with other skinheads.

This FAQ file is no longer available for anonymous FTP on the archive site

The Official alt.skinheads Homepage is at

You may distribute the FAQ freely but if you post it on a website of your own, I encourage you to provide a link back to the Official Website since this will always be the most up to date version. This FAQ will be posted at alt.skinheads and other newsgroups twice a month whether it need be or not for review, criticism, and approval.

If you have any questions, concerns, or corrections about the Skinhead FAQ please contact me at papaskin


1.2: Table of Contents

Part 1

1.0 Acknowledgments
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Table of Contents
1.3 What is a Skinhead?
1.4 What is a Rudie, Rude Boy, or Rude Girl?
1.5 What is a Mod?
1.6 What is a Chelsea?
1.6.1 Do skinchicks exclusively date skinheads?
1.7 What is a SHARP?
1.8 What is a Bonehead?
1.9 What is an Independent Skin?
1.10 What is White Power?
1.11 What is a Hammerskin?

Part 2

2.0 Why are you a Skinhead?
2.1 How do you become a ("claim") Skinhead?
2.1.1 What is a Freshcut?
2.1.2 Why do new Skins need to get beat in?
2.2 Why don't you get a life?
2.3 Why do you hate?
2.4 Aren't all Skinheads Nazis/White Supremacists?
2.5 Why be a Nazi?
2.6 Aren't all Skinheads violent little motherfuckers just itching to fight?

Part 3

3.0 Skinhead Culture: Culture
3.1 Skinhead Culture: History
3.2 The Great Skinhead/Working-Class Debate
3.3 Skinhead identity crisis
3.4 What is ska music?
3.5 What is Oi!?
3.6 Oi, Oi, Oi, Oi!!!
3.7 Skinheads Media List
3.8 Magazine and Newspaper Articles about Skinheads
3.9 What about 'zines?
3.10 Are there any Skinhead homepages or other Internet resources?
3.11 Skinheads and Education
3.11.1 Skinheads in the Classroom
3.12 Skinhead Jokes
3.13 Skinhead Short Stories
3.14 What is the best dark beer?
3.14.1 Guinness Extra Stout
3.14.2 Murphy's Irish Stout
3.15 Do Skinheads use drugs?
3.16 Skinhead Scenes?

Part 4

4.0 Skinhead Fashion
4.1 What colour are your Docs?
4.1.1 Anybody know where I can find DM oxbloods in either 3 or 4i?
4.2 Boots and Braces don't make a Racist
4.2.1 Boot Laces
4.2.2 Braces
4.3 The Late Great Burgundy Flight
4.4 Patches
4.4.1 The Spirit of 69
4.4.2 Crucified Skin
4.5 FREDS!
4.6 What the freak is a "wifebeater"?
4.7 What is a Donkey Jacket?
4.8 Where can I get ???
4.8.1 Anybody have a source for Sta-Prest trouser or Dickies?

Part 5

5.0 About the Newsgroups
5.1 alt.skinheads
5.2 alt.skinheads.moderated
5.3 alt.skinheads.arent.neo.nazis

Part 6

6.0 Requiem for the Dead
6.1 Stephen "Donny The Punk" Donaldson

1.3: What is a Skinhead?

Following on the heels of their older brothers and sisters, the Mods (See: What is a Mod?), in the 1960's British working class youths adopted a shorter hair style and a more serious attitude towards life and play.

The Skinheads tended towards physical labour and veered away from the overly flamboyant Mod style of dress as spoken of in the Kinks' song "Dedicated Follower of Fashion". The shaved head and steel toed boots has been said to have originated amongst dock workers who required the safety of the steel toes and who shaved their heads as a precaution against head lice.

It is the Skinheads predeliction towards manual labour rather than more intellectual pursuits which has lead to the characterization of Skinheads as being "unintelligent", "Cro-Magnons", "cannon-fodder for the military" and other more or less polite references. This stereotype is just as abhorent as any other stereotype that 'rights' activists campaign against and it is a perfect example of the hypocrisy of these same activists that they are the ones who perpetuate it the most. (See: Skinheads and Education and Skinheads in the Classroom)

After a hard days work the original Skinheads tended to dress in their most respectable clothing and congregate at the mostly Jamaican run dancehalls where they mingled with the West Indian community (See: What is a Rudy?), many of whose members would be their workmates from the docks, and adopted Ska as the musical sound of choice.

Other staples of the Skinhead culture are a love of generous quantities of beer and soccer. (See: What is the best dark beer?)

The early Skins were not necessarily a racist bunch, as shown by the melding of the two cultures and the existence of numerous West Indian Skins. With the continued immigration from Pakistan things changed and a number of Skinheads, both black and white who felt that their jobs were being threatened turned against the Pakistani community while others continued to enjoy the fine curries and other Indian/Pakistani foods.

The high point of the original Skins, sometimes identified as Trojan Skins was the Summer of '69. The passage of time saw many Skins settling down, growing their hair out, and starting families with their girlfriends (See: What is a Chelsea?)

The mid and late 1970's witnessed a resurgence of the Skinhead culture with a violent turn as teens adopted the Skinhead look and took their love of soccer to a fanatical point. These "Football Hooligans" were devoted to their chosen Football (Soccer to the rest of the world) teams and would engage in physical confrontations with the supporters of opposing teams. Often enough innocent bystanders ended up taking the brunt of the aggression.

During this time the British Nazi Party and other minor racist organizations began recruiting their followers from the ranks of these football thugs and skinhead poseurs and thus the Boneheads came into being.

(Gerrard A. Lindsay) writes:

i know plenty of guys who are proud working class joes who are not by any definition skinheads. i know tons of cool people in construction boots and baggy pants who are not skinheads.

this isn't even really directed at you, i'm just seeing lots of people using the 'it's not just a fashion' or 'it's not just music' thing to excuse the fact that they are not really skinheads. if you don't dress like a skinhead and don't like at least some of the music (and that don't mean hc), yer not one.

Richard Collins writes:

Hey you don't gotta claim anything unless you are in a crew. I mean if you are a proud working class kid who knows your roots and believes in yourself you are just as much a skin as the next man. It's not all about what you wear or how close you shave the scalp. If I grew out my hair again I'm no less of a skinhead. Some people look shitty bald, do the world a favor leave your crew cut if you have a funky head. I mean just look at all those bald head NBA players, half of those guys need to grow it back. Skinhead is more than a fashion statement, it's a way of life.

Apparent White Supremist MARKW691 wrote:

Stephen Martin wrote:

Hate is a word commonly associated with SKINHEADs but it's not about hate. Being a SKINHEAD is not about being violent and hating everyone but about just plain living and enjoying life (Beer, Chelseas and Ska anyone?). We are called hate mongers and bigoted bastards by those who are as ignorant as they claim us to be.

SKINHEADs do not roam the streets looking for a fight but work as tradesmen, shopkeepers, and even [sinking as low as] lawyers. Don't be fooled by media brainwashing. We are not out looking for a fight. Things can turn violent but we do not tolerate anyone trying to attack us and will defend ourselves.

People hate us because we are proud, we have respect and honour for ourselves, and for the people who deserve it (remembering when our institutions were something to be proud of, when there was more civilization around us), and they often mistake this pride for hatred of anything that is *non-skinhead*.

We really just don't care. We, as individuals, are proud to be who we are, and if someone else is proud of who they are, why should it be a problem?

I ask you this, do you deem it fair for a person to be hated because they have pride in themselves and want to keep something in this God forsaken world clean? Does it make sense to you to assume that if a person is proud to be a Fireman they don't have equal respect for the Police or Ambulance Attendants, Construction Workers, etc.? Is it really any different than assuming that anyone who is proud of their sub)culture has nothing but disdain and hatred for other (sub)cultures?

Think about it.

Graham Wilson writes:


This is where are you wrong. While it is true that outright racist skinheads are not "original" skinheads in the real sense, there were are those skinheads who hold racist ideals. Whether you or anyone else doesn't like it - in terms of political opinion, there is no such thing as a set political stance that provides the "real" definition as to what a "true" skinhead is or was.

Just like there are non-skinheads who are racist and anti-racist, equally there are skinheads who hold racist and anti-racist beliefs. If anything precludes someone from being a "real" skinhead it is someone who becomes skin believing that "real" skin are either specifically racist or anti-racist (bonhead or sharp).

Most skins I know- and it works in both directions- can respect, although they may not agree with a skinhead who is a bonehead or a skinhead who is sharp. Someone who is skin first, politics second (whether it be left or right) most skins can accept.

There is an important distinction between a skinhead who is a bonehead and a bonhead skinhead in the same way there is a distinction between a skin who is sharp and a sharp skinhead.

The defining factor is which comes first - skinhead or politics?

If someone allows their politics (left or right) to be the defining factor as to whether they are a skinhead, then that person is a wannabe - using skin image and culture for their own purely personal ends. Either they are using the way society labels skins either to reinforce the sterotype that a skin is only a skin to be racist (putting aside working class skin history, culture and loyalty in the process) or (in the case of most modern sharps) because they think it is really a bit of a laugh to go around challenging the sterotype image (again skin history, culture and loyalty being put aside).

It is true that some of the first skins were from Jamaca and they were involved in crews with white English skins. Equally, however, some of the first skins were involved in what was loosely called the "APL" (Anti-Paki League) and it cannot be denied that both some West Indian and English skins were involved in - to use the term of the time - "Paki bashing". These combined crews of English and Jamacans objected to what they saw as the influx of alien cultures and beliefs to the UK which was damaging their job prospects and (for want of a better word) personal values.

The organised racism where racists hijacked the skinhead image came about during the late 60s and into the 70s and still exists.

Equally with sharp it came about during the 80s. It's ideals were honest and whether or not most skins accepted what it stood for it was respected. However, in the 1990s it seems to have been hijacked. It now seems more about a society for trendy stereotype challenging more than anything else.


In the early days most crews consisted of a cross-range of political / cultural / nationalistic beliefs that included both racist and anti-racist views. However, most were skinheads first and political second and hence respected each other. I remember this being the case even during the mid / late 80s. I can't say that it is so obvious today. Primarily, I think this comes down to the right wing becoming more extreme and the left wing becoming more silly.

It is true what you say that with the first skins, colour was not the defining factor as to whether someone would or would not be accepted. The fact that Afro-Caribbean skins existed alongside and together with white English skins proves that point. However, equally, it is true that racism was there from the outset against certain foreign nationals and cultures, as in the APL example above. With the original skins the racial issue was not a case of all (as bonehead skins would have you believe) or a case of nothing at all (as sharp skins would have you believe).

In reality it was there but aimed at specific groups, not non-white English/British nationals per se.

1.4: What is a Rudy, Rude Boy, or Rude Girl?

Rudy is synonymous with Rude Boy and Rude Girl. Of course the only difference is in the sex. Melody Maker described a Rude Boy as a "sort of cool super-hooligan," where 'rude' in Jamaican usage means wild, violent, or reckless. Rude Boys were a product of the mean streets of Shanty Town, as described in Desmond Dekker's "007 (Shanty Town)" (1967), "Rude Boy Train" (1968), and a host of other Dekker releases. Shanty Town refers to Dekker's home, the overcrowded slums of West Kingston, Jamaica. The area was plagued with unemployment, tension, and violence. An Associated Press story noted that it contained "ramshackle dwellings, the majority of them made of cardboard, plywood, corrugated metal or some other discarded material." Dekker: "Them a loot/Them a shoot/Them a wail/At Shanty Town/When rude boy deh 'pon probation/Then rude boy a bomb up the town." Harry Young of Lightning Strikes (The Lou Christie Newsletter) states:

Due to very repressive police policies, only a few "rudies" actually went around looting and shooting. But every teenage male in Trench Town adopted the rude attitude and dress, especially a jaunty cap. In the popular culture, "Rudy" became an outlaw hero figure, like Jesse James, Billy The Kid, or even James Bond.

During the '50s and '60s many Jamaicans and other West Indies immigrated to the UK. In addition to the Mod (see: What is a Mod?) influence, Skinheads adopted the Rude Boy music (see: What is ska music?), tough street-level attitude and various aspects of their fashion. These days Rude Boys can be typically identified wearing a dark suit, thin black tie, and pork-pie hat. Rude Girls appear to have more freedom in their fashion.

Brian Poust describes the Rude Girl look:

These are pretty much the recognizable looks, but be creative! Don't fall for the checkerboard myth. It's not as cool as everyone thinks. There are more colors in the spectrum than black and white and if I never see a short plaid skirt again in my life, I'll die a happy man. Pleats are right out, and don't underestimate a well fitting double breasted car coat for the colder weather coming up. Flights are functional, but the skinhead crowd more than supplies an ample number of those at shows. Parkas are warm, but most girls I've seen wearing them end up looking like they've raided dad's closet.

Experiment, find something that looks smart that everyone else isn't necessarily wearing. If you've got the flip thing going on, try a scarf a la "That Girl" Marlo Thomas every once in a while, it works!

1.5: What is a Mod?

Harry Lowes writes:

For the record, MODS were *Modernists*. MOD CONS means *Modern Convieniences*. As in "The flat had all *MOD CONS*."

Brian Poust writes:

Mod is a direct outgrowth of Post War Britain, when all of a sudden teenagers had disposable income and a desire for an identity beyond schoolboy or working man. This strive for identity led to using their income to look better, act smarter and have more fun than their elders, and to make it known that they were a force to be reckoned with, and that they had a voice and influence, especially in the marketplace.

James F. Dugan writes:

Mods or modernists were working class youth cult in England in the 60's. They were very fashion concious and a product essentially of the space age bigger better faster culture of the 60's, hence the name. They also were fans of R&B and Soul (as well as some ska). Their counterparts, the Teds or teddy boys or rockers were an older youth cult that by the time the mods came around were essentillly American style greasers. I wouldn't go so far as to call Psychobilly fans teddy boys, for a lot of reasons, not the least of which is that losts of Psychobilly folks are ex-skins. Watch Quadrophenia.

Chris writes:

There is one problem here. They were on the cutting edge, but frankly, they aren't anymore. That was the only reason to be. Skins on the other hand, have the common working-class bonds and beliefs. That's why we are still legitimate. Mods on the other hand, don't have this reason for existing. They are just living the life that was, not is. These days, a mod would be a fuckin raver (which kind of explains the state of ska today, but that's another matter.) The mods that were the forefathers of skins deserve the respect, but not the ones of to- day.

Brian Poust replies:

Your tired little arguments really are ridiculous. Your implication that skinheads are on the cutting edge and that mods don't have a working class ethic it beyond bullshit.

I think it shows a lot more self respect to have a good work ethic and still care about being clean cut and well dressed than it does to look like some downtrodden aggro loving half-wit. Working class is not about poverty, my friend. Working class is about making a respectable living and pulling your own weight, no matter what your job is.

There are a lot of skinheads who also realize this fact as well, you just seem to have missed the boat. You can be a skinhead and still not talk and look a complete mess. I daresay you'd be terribly laughed at by original skinheads.

You obviously don't have a clue about mods, you only know that you think skinheads are better. If you gave any thought to what you believe before you wrote, whatsoever, you might realize that the only reason to be a mod is NOT to be on the cutting edge, ravers are not mods, ravers aren't on the cutting edge, and I am certainly not illegitimate, thank you very much.

This is getting far too silly as it seems that a lot of skinheads can't get their heads out of their asses to see that they aren't going to take over the world, they aren't going to start some new Worker's Revolution, and they're often just too damn closed minded for their own good.

1.6: What is a Chelsea?

Chelsea originally refered to the girlfriend of a Skinhead but has since come to refer to females as Skinheads in their own right. Whether the term stems from the name of the fringe, short on top and longer around the sides, they adopted, or whether the hair style was named after the girls remains a mystery to me.

Jennifer J. Jewkes says:

I have a feather cut now...and it needs a trim..I live in a chelsea is out of the question for now... I'm getting tempted to shave it again...only when it get warmer..prolly in a few months..the way Chicago's weather goes. I agree... Chelsea's are stunning...but feather cuts have a bit more class..especially when you are older and have to worry about finding a job.

Gerrard A. Lindsay weighs in stating that:

someone remarked that not many original skinhead girls had short hair. maybe i'm wrong, but most pictures i've seen did feature skingirls with short to cropped hair. maybe not extreme fringe, but i haven't seen any pictures of skingirls with long hair from before the seventies...

even the skinhead bible mentions skingirls going to male barbers for haircuts...

Jenn Starkman replies:

> even the skinhead bible mentions skingirls going to male barbers for haircuts....

Again, mine is obviously not the word of God, but there's a difference between short hair and a shaved head on a female, and a woman in the '60s with a shaved head would've had a hell of a time in public (outrageous hairstyles not being *nearly* as common in those days--unless you count beehives as outrageous).

Besides which, a great many "skingirls" in the beginning (unfortunate though this may be) were pretty much just girlfriends of skinheads, and not quite as apt to shave their heads." wrote:

noone answered my other hair question, what is a chelsea? is it a fringe of a different name, or what?

Schroedinger Cat writes:

I think Jenn answered this one effectively, but I'll recap... in relation to skinheads, it is both a skinhead girl and a skinhead girl haircut (a ffringe, basically, though I usually hear fringes referred to as just the bits on the front, chelseas go all the way around).

dave gets the final comment:

uhh not sure what's worse? environment with like no skingirls or an environment full of skingirls just too old for you? life sucks below the drinking age ;)"

1.6.1: J.A. Dare writes: "Question for you skinchicks: Do you just exclusively date skinheads?"

From: Jenn Starkman

Well, at the moment I'm exclusively dating *a* skinhead...

But generally, I probably *couldn't* only go for skins simply because I'd be very lonely--there are very few skinheads where I live and even fewer single ones (my boyfriend included, now...). If I could, though, I probably would, if only because I find skinhead guys particularly attractive--more so than others, usually.

If I met a guy I really hit it off with who wasn't a skin, though, I'd probably give it a chance.

In the end, though? Yeah, skinheads are always first on my list. :-)"

1.7: What is a SHARP?

Todd Ferguson writes:

In the late 1980's a group of skinheads got together in NYC to form the first chapter of Skinheads Against Racial Prejudice. SHARP had three main objectives: to educate the public about true skinhead culture, to expose the bonehead imposters for what they really are and to drive the boneheads out of their communities by any means necessary. The New York chapter was quickly successful and soon chapters sprang up elsewhere as news spread. Today SHARP is the most predominant anti-racist skin group around and you can find SHARP chapters all over the world, as well as other anti-racist skinhead groups like SCAR, SPAR and RASH.

Sir Lawrence of Skarabia writes:

Here in Hawaii the are the HARPS H.awaiianskins A.gainst R.acialP.redjudice. There are japanese and chinese skins here as well.

1.8: What is a Bonehead?

Bonehead is a derogatory term used by Traditional and other Skins to denote any Skinhead who holds to racist or White Power beliefs, as well as those Neo-Nazis who have adopted the skinhead "look" in an attempt to hijack the movement.

1.9: What is an Independent Skin?

Kali Holloway writes: "Independent" is usually used interchangeably with "traditional".

Stephen "Donny" Donaldson writes: "I thought 'independent' meant 'not in a crew'. I certainly hear it in that sense in NYC."

1.10: What is White Power?

White Power is an empowering philosophy of White racial nationalism and ethnicity. It refers to a diverse range of philosophies from leftist White racism to National Socialism. Perhaps the simplest imperative about what White Power stands for exists in the "14 words" coined by former Bruder Schweigen member, David Lane:

"We must secure the existence of our people and a future for White children." [WPF]

In the eyes of non-racists, White Power is the modern embodiment of the evils of the Fascist Nazi Party and its belief in the superiority of the "White" or "Aryan" race over the Jews, Blacks and others whom White Power advocates choose to blame for the woes of modern society.

1.11: What is a Hammerskin?

In Pink Floyd's _The Wall_ movie, there is a video segment sung to the tune "Up against the Wall," where Pink takes on the visage of a powerful leader. During this sequence, hundreds of skinheads march through the street and chase the "Pakis" (Pakistanis) out of England. Although the movie is largely opposed to that viewpoint, young skinheads were emboldened by the image of strength and came to call themselves Hammerskins. As these groups spread throughout the U.S. and Canada, they took on regional prefixes like: Western Hammerskins, Northern Hammerskins, Confederate Hammerskins and other such names. [WPF]

2.0: Why are you a Skinhead?

Stephen J. Alexander ( writes:

> writes:

>Assuming thier aren't any first generation skinheads on this NG, I'd
>like to know why some of you became skinheads.
>-Was it the image?

To some extent, yes. It is a wondrous thing to inspire respect (and sometimes fear, depending on where you are) just because you look a little odd and you stand up straight and proud.

>-The beliefs?

Yes, provided you're not talking about white pride. My take on the reason anyone ought to be a skinhead is a matter of attitude. Basically it's losing the juvenile sophomoric bullshit that most of the world partakes in daily, and getting serious about your life. Of course that means getting serious about having fun too... I guess that's why I have such discriminating taste in beer, heh. Anyway, before I claimed skin I was something of a rebel without a cause. In high school, I was always looking for some way of life to relate to because all the crap I had seen previous to that had got me nowhere... one religion or system of beleifs seemed as empty and stupid as another. I knew what shitheads most of the world is comprised of and I wanted to separate myself from it, but I didn't know how. I don't think I could have at the time either, I was pretty clueless in high school. Be that as it may, I guess it follows that when I met some skins and realized what they were about, I came to know what I was meant to be.

>-An apreciation for the dress, which is one of the strangest things
> about the whole lifestyle, especially in the U.S.

Yes. Boots and braces are rad as hell... I've thought so since I first saw them, at that. I wouldn't say the style of dress is so much strange, as distinctive. My mother thinks it's anachronistic, which makes sense when you consider when the whole skinhead thing started. She also mentioned to me how her father wore thin braces to work when she was a child in the forties and fifties (in the states) so the style really isn't that far from home. There are a few other features of the 'look' which the observer will notice as well, which also suit me just fine. writes:

Stephen J. Alexander ( replies:

Jenn comments:

Mike (UK) writes:

DREWSKIN has the final say:

I am a skinhead because the pride i feel for my country goes more than skin-deep. I believe skinheads are the people most dedicated to their beliefs in this world today... whether it means being a white power skinhead(bonehead) a traditional skinhead,a SHARP skinhead, etc. etc.... or just a normal guy like me who`s into good music, pride for my country, beer, fine skinhead girls and likes dressing sharp and dancing to good music...

2.1: How do you become a ("Claim") Skinhead? (Frederick N. Crouse) inquires:

Jenn replies:

In other words, there is that period of genesis and learning, but it is not until *after* they feel that they have enough of a grounding in the history of the subculture, and enough to offer to it, that a person will finally "claim skinhead", or start identifying him/herself as an actual *part* of the subculture.

Stephen Martin wrote:

I think you'll find with many people that it is simply a matter of them becoming aware of the fact that they have been, already *are*, and always will be a Skinhead, and then taking that finally step of identifying with "their people".

2.1.1: What is a Freshcut?

A Freshcut is someone new to the Skinhead subculture. "When are you no longer a Freshcut?" That's purely subjective, depends on who you ask. wrote:

Michael Rosencrantz ( writes:

2.1.2: Why do new Skins need to get beat in? (MyBrKeeper) wrote:

I've got a question about new skins in general. Why do they get "beat in"?? Is that just a local thing or do you have to be beat up by older skins to be a skin.

Graham Wilson ( writes:

See whether you can stand the pace of things.

You certainly don't have to be beat up by older skins to be a skin.

However, when you get to know a group of skins for the first time, if you stand your ground then you end up with far more credibility than you would otherwise have.

2.2: Why don't you get a life?

Skinheads, regardless of their political, sexual, or religious persuasion, or lack thereof, do have lives which, while they may differ from your own principles and ideals, are no less valid then those of any other member of society at large.

While you may not agree with their lifestyle, keep in mind that there's bound to be someone who doesn't approve of yours either.

2.3: Why do you hate?

While the popular media enjoys its love/hate relationship with Skinheads, almost consistently portraying them as sub-literate, unemployed racists with a fondness for hiring themselves out as bodyguards/storm troopers for the Neo-Nazis, this is a gross distortion of the truth.

Anyone who truly understands the origins of the Skinhead subculture (see: What is a Skinhead?) sees right through that stereotype but, unfortunately, there are those who cannot distinguish between a Skinhead and a Bonehead (see: What is a Bonehead?).

In all fairness to the Boneheads, in his White Power FAQ, Arthur LeBouthillier answers this question saying:

White Power advocates love their race. Because of that, they are strongly opposed to any attempts to harm it by means of loss of territory, loss of economic or political self-determination, disenfranchisement or race mixing. In order to preserve their race and its interests, they are often willing to engage in hostile acts against perceived threats to it.

Well, that's enough of that for now.

2.4: Aren't all Skinheads Nazis/White Supremacists?

No. The term Nazi comes from the name given to Adolph Hitler's National-Socialist German Workers Party, a *form* of Fascism, and thus has had no validity since 1945. The proper term for resurgent Nazis is Neo-Nazis. Supremacy refers to an alleged right to rule over other races. As with Neo-Nazism, although some Boneheads are White Supremacists many are not.

Stephen Martin writes:

While skinheads, racists, and Neo-Nazis are not mutually exclusive, they are not necessarily inclusive and it is just as wrong to tar skinheads with the taint of neo-Naziism or racism as it is to paint any ethnic group as a pack of criminals or what have you.

Please, do try to keep in mind that the original skinheads grew out of the melding of British working class youth, both white and black, with the music and fashions of the immigrant Jamaican community.

While such racialist organizations as the BNP (British Nazi Party), and others have had some success recruiting members who affect the style of dress associated with the skinhead subculture, you will find that these aberrations are minor compared with the number of Traditional skinheads, S.H.A.R.P.s, Gay/Lesbian skinheads, those skinheads of African, Spanish, French, etc. descent, in addition to those skinheads (none of the aforementioned categories being mutually exclusive) running the gamut of political persuasions from Anarchists to Apolitical to Communist to Conservative to Libertarian, etc. and/or religious faiths including Buddhists, Christians, Jews, etc.

Just witness this following posting retrieved from Deja News:

Re: Older man wants to be a skinhead - advice?

James F. Dugan Date: 1996/01/13 MessageID:
4d8g41$ references: <4d4s6g$>;
organization: The Pipeline newsgroups: alt.skinheads In article <4d4s6g$>;,
Dr. Stanley Korobka writes: >Hi there, people. My name is Dr. Stanley
Korobka and I am interested in >becoming a skinhead. Although
I am an older man (62) I must admit that >I am very attracted to skinhead
culture, especially the spirited music and >rebellious fashions. I was
always a good boy, did what my Daddy told >me to, went to medical school,
invested wisely and such. I suppose this >is a midlife crisis long overdue.
But there you have it. By the way, I >am not a racist, I am actually
Jewish. Can I still be a skinhead? Could >anyone give me pointers
on where to shop? > >Stan > >Dr. Stanley H. Korobka, aspiring
skinhead > Well doc, I don't mind saying that this is without
a doubt the strangest thing I have ever seen on this newsgroup. Rest assured
you don't need to be a racist to be a skinhead, many of the skins
here are non-racist and several are also Jewish. However the fact that you
don't know this makes me wonder what exactly it is about being a skin that
you find attractive. Skinhead is predominantly a working class youth
movement, and as you are neither working class nor a youth, it would be
a bit of a stretch. This isn't to say you couldn't be a skin, but I think
you may be the first 62 year old doctor to ever express intrest. Jim Dugan

Thank you.

2.5: Why be a Nazi?

BRicha6796 wrote:

I've always wondered why people become nazi skins as opposed to real skins. It seems to be fascists are way more greedy than "the evil jew" I mean Resistance cd's are REALLY expensive. And if you ever read a copy of Resistance most of the shit they preach i obviously untrue. I mean wouldn't it just be better to be non-political? Not necessarily SHARP but just be a skin as opposed to being part of all the bullshit. Look at most nazi bands today. They sound like cock-rock. Is this really skinhead music? I don't think so. I heard the america first committee does not want to work with nazi's in "The Aryan Quest" cuz their are too many gays. I just wanna know what makes hanging out with bikers, gays, longhairs, and white trash look attractive as opposed to hanging out with decent clean working class people.

Ivon Kalalang replies:

I really don't understand either. Maybe, it's the disposition people take in life that resulted from a bad experience, or the in bred desire to harm someone and you're just looking for an excuse. This is how I picture it. The early skins were cockney fuckers. Racism was never their main theology, and racist tendecies were what they were, tendencies. Someone could be, someone couldn't be. So in comes along NF and BNP takes the disenfranchised youth and churns out white power kids.

So years later, the media exploits this. People have gotten so used to seeing skinheads as being racist on TV, that it actually has an odd influence on some people who just want to be a skinhead becuase they are racist, and to them being racist from what they see on TV is what being a skinhead is all about. Music is another topic in itself. WP stuff is expensive, but considering a lot of it was put on R-O-R, and R-O-R stuff is pretty damn rare. That's why I'd buy a WP album. I mean, look at some of the bands from the US before 1990, Allegiance, Arresting Officers, Forced Reality, and etc. They were actually okay to listen to. I mean Arresting Officers has some catchy songs like 'Stop Red Action' and 'United Skins'. Anyways, the point is, it's really too easy falling into the media's view of nazi skinheads. Just look at that one stupid HBO special 'Skinheads USA'.

2.6: Aren't all Skinheads violent little motherfuckers just itching to fight?

Richard Collins wrote:

Well assuming that the lot of us are college students or something to that nature, it is safe to say a good number of the regulars out there are of the more intellectual variety, despite their personal beliefs. This brings we to a question about fighting. I'm not saying you can not be smart and also tough at the same time, but people of intelligence have been known to use their minds to avoid fighting. Then again, we all at times get the overwhelming urge to beat the pulp out of some stupid piece of human fieces. So are any of you girls or boys aggro skins?

Do you have some friends that can not go out without ...

B) Suggesting you (as a group) start a fight

C) Looking for any excuse to jump into a fight

Last night at Desmond Dekker this little skin girl told a bunch of us boys that some guy hit her. So a boot party nearly insued. I was just watching being the hippie scum that I am. No, but seriuosly I don't get off on being the sixth guy to boot some one's head in. Fighting to me is not a nessicary part of being a skinhead. I recognize fighting as a part of life we all must face but it doesn't need to be a part of every night on the town.

Graham Wilson replies:

I was when I was younger. I soon realised however that I was going to end up in a lot of shit. What's the point?

If you have to stand your ground then I believe stand it. I don't believe in going out looking for fights though. I realised that if I was going to (to use an old naff but appropriate phrase) live by the sword, then I was going to die by the sword. Eventually you end up getting into a fight with someone who is much stronger and you get the shit kicked out of ya.

These 3. [A, B, and C] I can think of a couple of skins I know that are like it.

The problem is that there are those who like to start a fight on purpose but then leave everyone else to finish it.

I suppose I used to see it as the easy way to solve everything.

CRM94001@UConnVM.UConn.Edu (Chris) replied:

Depends on whether the guy deserves it or not. In the case that you just described, yes, I would. But if some guy just starts talking shit and calling me names, that's no reason. I've been called worse. Sometimes you just get in the mood where you're just waiting for a fight. About a week ago, I was going to hit this crusty that was shooting his mouth off too much, but my friends held me back. They later changed their mind when we found out the next day that the same scumbag had hit this female friend of ours. All in all, it depends on the situation.

Janis Collins writes:

I'd sure like to find the real reason behind this group. If you're so non racist and nonviolent, what's up with all the fighting?

Generalizations have their beginnings in truth even if they tend to get distorted later. 9 time outta 10 if you see red docs with white laces on a skinhead with the famous red suspenders you're looking at trouble. If they're enmasse, you're really looking at a massacre (James F. Dugan) replies:

What the hell are you talking about?

9 times outa 10 I see oxbloods with white laces, i'm saying "Hi, how are you" to their owner. As for red suspenders, they're really not that popular. Futhermore, 9 times outa 10 when a skin beats someones ass, they deserved it, and 5 times out 10 the other idiot started it and wants to whine about it later. Even accepting all of the things you say as gospel, there is separate and perfectly good reason for your experiences: you and your friends are assholes.

Janis Collins ( writes:

Because they're already proving themselves defective so why not expect more negative behaviour?? Are you trying to say that you're just as likely to get a violent response out of a Joe Citizen/well-to-do officeworker as you are a skinhead?

And of course Janis is right. Witness this exchange:

Chris UCB ( wrote:

I am looking for fellow skins in the S.F. area particularly the east bay. I am tired of always being bored at home please e-mail me or post to this newsgroup.

Richard Collins ( writes:

Who are you man? Where do you live?

Note the way Richie immediately starts pumping poor Chris for his address, obviously so he can go over and beat him up. Let's read on...

The scene out here is huge. I live in the east bay in the suburbs but still the city is only minutes away. Are we talkng east back like Livermore? Concord?

Obviously a well veiled threat there, and see how he's still searching for his address?

Even the farthest reachs are accessable to SF.

Yep, Skinhead Fascists. They're the worst and it's obvious that Richie is a member of their crew... (I guess that's enough sarcasm)

J W ( gets the last word with:

'Janis Collins ' wrote:

I'd sure like to find the real reason behind this group.


The real reason for this group is so SKINHEADS can "get together," in a virtual sense, and talk about stuff, and meet, complain, rant, etc.


Don't take that personally. What I mean is anyone should be able to post, as long as they know what they're talking about, which you have proven since before I've even been here.

If you're so non racist and nonviolent, what's up with all the fighting?


I'm violent, I have a violent attitude, but try to remember that while some of us may not have hair, most of us have proven our high intellectual capacity, and many of us are proven geniuses. From that, you can infer that we do also have brains. We think before doing something stupid, like running out and beating someone up over bullshit.

3.0: Skinhead Culture: Culture

"we're all skinheads we stand proud,
we're working class and shout it out loud,
we love our oi! that's what we live for,
can't get enough we always want more..."
the pride 'the pride'

3.1: Skinhead Culture: History

courtesy of the Lashout Website (

Skinhead origins begin in Britain in the mid to late 1960's. Out of a youth cult known as the "Mods," the rougher kids began cutting their hair close, both to aid their fashion and prevent their hair from hindering them in street fights. These working class kids adopted the name "Skinheads" to separate themselves from the more dainty and less violent Mods. Huge groups of these explosive youths would meet every Saturday at the football grounds to support their local teams. The die hard support for a group's team often lead to skirmishes between opposing supporters, leading to Britain's legendary "football violence." When night swept the island, the skinheads would dress in the finest clothes they could afford, and hit the dance halls. It was here they danced to a new sound that was carried to Britain by Jamaican immigrants. This music went by many names including: the ska, jamacian blues, blue beat, rocksteady, and reggae. At these gatherings the skinheads would dance, drink, and laugh with each other and the Jamaican immigrants whom brought the music to Britian.

During the 1970's, there were many changes in the "typical" skinhead. For some fashion went from looking smooth in the best clothes you could afford with a blue-collar job, to looking like you were at home, even when you were out. For others the disco craze of the seventies hit hard, resulting in feathered hair, frilly pants, and those ugly seventies shoes. By the late 70's the National Front, Britain's National Socialist party, had invaded the skinhead movement. Kids were recruited as street soldiers for NF. Since skinheads were already a violent breed, the NF decided that if their young recruits adopted the skinhead appearance, the might benefit from the reputation. It was at this point that racism permeated the skinhead cult without the consent of its members.

Also by the mid 70's punk had put the rebellion back in rock-and-roll, opening a new avenue for street kids to express their frustrations. The shifting mindset brought kids into the skinhead movement as yet another form of expression. By the late 70's punk had been invaded by the colleges, and record labels, letting down kids who truly believed in its rebellion. From the streets came a new kind of punk rock, a type which was meant to be true to the working class and the kids on the street. This new music was called "Oi!" by Gary Bushell, and the name stuck. Oi! revived the breath of the working class kids. Because of Oi! music's working class roots, the media scorned its messages unlike they had done with the first wave of punk. With the change in music came a new kinds of skinheads, and the gaps between the different types widened. Aside from the National Front's skinheads, the movement had been simply a working class struggle, rather than a right-left political struggle. With skinheads forming their own bands, political lines began to be drawn on the basis of right-left and even non-political politics. Politically right groups were often associated with the National Front and had distinct racial messages. Leftist groups looked at the working class struggle through labor politics. Non-political groups often shunned both sides simply because they chose to be political. The Oi! movement consumed most of the 1980's and is still alive today.

Skinheads have spread to every part of the globe. Each country supports an independent history of skinhead goals, values, and appearances. The definition of "skinhead" varies from country to country, which doesn't say too much since it also varies from city to city.

Starting in the late 80's, through present day, there has been a large resurgence back to the "traditional" values and appearance of the 1960's skinhead. This has occurred in Britain, America, as well as most of Europe. This has lead to even more tension, this time between "traditional," and "non-traditional" skins.

3.2: The Great Skinhead/Working-Class Debate

PapaSkin wrote:

This is a debate left for flying fists, and will forever be in debate to skins about the globe. The jest of it is, A skinhead is working-class no matter what his position in society or the work place is. It is a way of thinking, a type of personalty that should insue in every skinhead regardless of stature. If you don't feel the pride, if you don't feel the honor in your heart, then simply put, you are not a skinhead.

3.3: Skinhead identity crisis

J.W. wrote:

God forbid the professors find out you are, you have to write papers about it when everyone else can choos the assignment.

"Well, I thought I might suggest that *you* write *your* paper on skinheads. Maybe you could write about the night your whole dorm tried breaking your door down when they found out and how you had to keep yourself locked inside with a parking meter in hand in case they got in you were going to hurl it at the first one's head as a warning to the others."

"Or maybe you could tell us all about the history behind the culture," when everyone else is writing about their familial historical backgrounds.

John M. Stafford replied:

Horse wrote:

And its this dynamic character that separates us from the wankers that try to horn in on the subculture. They try so hard to fit the stereotype that they stick out like sore thumb. And even further more thats why this subculture hasn't gone the way of grunge, or the raver, or any other fad thats was there today then gone the next. The constrictiveness of each little fad wears off and loses its fun after a couple months.

Its the individuality thats keeps it strong, with the respect and tradition at its base.

3.4: What is Ska music?

Ska is dance music, first and foremost. Ska was a Jamaican dance music that swept out of Jamaica in the early 1960s to shake the butts of working- and middle-class Jamaicans before going on, via the West Indian immigrant connection, to the U.K., and then on to the world. In the U.K., ska was also known as `blue beat' music. Rocksteady, and later, reggae sprang from the loins of ska in the late 1960s. Mid-1970s and 1980s/1990s revivals of this popular dance form have kept this music alive and fun through the present. The ska beat on drums and bass, rhythm guitar, lots of horns and maybe a Hammond organ --- that's the ska sound. [AMS]

Ska came to England with immigrants in the early 1960s. Known in the U.K. briefly as ``Jamaican Blues,'' ska inspired the formation of the Blue Beat record company, providing yet another name for the ska sound: `blue beat.' Ska gained popularity in the U.K. with the `Mod' scene, leading to the residual association of small-brimmed trilby (hats) and scooters with ska music. [HSBR] (For scooter talk, check out the alt.scooter Usenet group.) [AMS]

3.5: What is Oi!?

  1. "Hey!" (from cockney slang, a shortening of the greek 'oi polloi' or common people.)
  2. Oi! is the label which Gary Bushell (a British journalist) gave to the late seventies/early eighties streetpunk bands who refused to be a part of the plastic punk (call it the ancestor of MTV punk) that was big at the time. Nowadays Oi! is thought of as a melodic, old school type of punk but it was originally more of a movement than a sound.

The grandfathers of Oi! are Sham 69. They were one of the first bands to take punk to a level higher than just shock value. They used their music as a working class protest.

The classic Oi! band is the Cockney Rejects (who were the first band to use the chant oi! in their music). Their 'ruck n roll' attitude (we ruck n you roll) pretty much sums up the oi! stance, non-political, working class, proud music.

A lot of bigger punk bands were also originally identified with the oi! movement (i.e. the Exploited who as 'skinhead herberts' are on Oi! the Album).

Oi! is streetpunk, oi! is working class kids winning, oi! is punx and skins together, oi! is oceans of beer and mountains of pride.....

Buy an Oi! comp and it'll change yer life. [OTF]

[written by Gerrard Lindsay (


"If punk was *real*, then Oi! was *reality*!"
                                              -Laurie Pryor

"No mess. No fuss. Just pure impact..."
                                    -Mick Furbank

Oi! is a melodic type of punk-rock which originated in Britain around 1980 and has since spread throughout the world. The forefathers of Oi! (Sham 69, Menace, The Lurkers, Slaughter And The Dogs, Cockney Rejects, Cock Sparrer, Angelic Upstarts, etc.) played what some of the smarter press of the time dubbed, "real-punk" (i.e. punk-rock with a message/theme of "social realism"). A lot of the press who courted the original wave of punk-rock, wholly ignored or wrote-off what was soon to be called Oi! as "thug-rock," and thus insured unfair treatment of the genre right from the get-go.

Around 1980, bands like the 4-Skins (East London), Infa Riot (North London), The Last Resort (Herne Bay), Red Alert (Sunderland), The Business (South London) and Blitz (Manchester) began to pop-up all across Great Britain. This phenomenon of strikingly similar-minded, yet unrelated bands was quickly clumped together as "Oi!" by Sounds journalist Gary Bushell, taking the name from the classic Cockney Rejects song, "Oi! Oi! Oi!" Bushell not only gave Oi! its name, he compiled and gave the world the first Oi! compilation, "Oi! The Album" (released by EMI injunction with Sounds magazine). "Oi! The Album" -- though not a truly stellar record or even completely representative of the Oi! genre of the time -- set the precedent for the compilation as an important part of the Oi! movement, as witnessed by the release of countless Oi!-focused compilations world-wide ever since its release. Musically, Oi! is generally distinguished by anthemic melodies, terrace-style backing vocals and a pace/tempo more suitable for pogoing and singing along, than slam-dancing and stage-diving. Together with ska and reggae, Oi! forms the musical focus of the traditional skinhead subculture, and together with hardcore and classic punk-rock, it forms the musical focus of the punk subculture.

The impact of the early '80s, English Oi! scene could be felt the world-over, with Oi! bands and scenes popping-up globally, kick-started by bands like Iron Cross in the U.S., Bohse Onkels in Germany, Komitern Sect in France, Cobra in Japan, Nabat in Italy and so on. This is barely mentioning the huge impact Oi! had on the U.S. hardcore scene, evidenced by such classic American hardcore bands like Agnostic Front, 7 Seconds, Youth Brigade and Negative Approach citing Oi! as a huge influence, as well as covering many brickwall standards.

Sociologically, Oi! is a coalition of street-punks and skinheads, and emphasizes working-class concerns and themes: labor, fighting, shagging, drinking, pride, self-respect and generally having a laugh -- the "politics of life" or the "politics of the street." Being rooted among the working-class, street kids and the powerless, authentic and traditional Oi! rejects the authoritarian and conservative politics of the extreme right as well as the knee-jerk, reactionary politics of the extreme left.


Oi! is having a laugh and having a say.
Oi! is bigger than any uniform.
Oi! is sharp in brain and dress.
Oi! is you and me... Winning.
Oi! is thinking for yourself.
Oi! is pride and self-respect.
Oi! is the beat of the street.
Oi! is working class protest.
Oi! is youth eternal.
Oi! is youth enrage.
Oi! is a way of life.


Select major British Oi! bands (past and present) include: Another Man's Poison, Anti-Establishment, Anti-Social, Attak, The Betrayed, Blitz, Braindance, Boisterous, The Business, Cock Sparrer, Cockney Rejects, Combat 84, Condemned 84, Crashed Out, Criminal Class, Crux, The Ejected, The 4-Skins, The Gonads, Infa-Riot, Indecent Exposure, The Last Resort, Last Rough Cause, Major Accident, The Oppressed, The Partisans, Pressure 28, Prole, Red Alert, Section 5, Short'n'Curlies, Straw Dogs, The Strike & Vicious Rumors.

Select major American Oi! bands (past and present) include: The Anti-Heros (GA), The Authority (CA), Battle Cry (NY), The Bruisers (MA), Boot Party (CA), Bootcamp (NY), Bottom Of The Barrel (NY), Chapter 21 (Chicago) Bovver Wonderland (CA), Broken Heroes (NJ), The Choice (CA), Forced Reality (MA), Headwound (NJ), Iron Cross (DC), Immoral Discipline (DC), Limecell (PA), Lower Class Brats (TX), Moonstomp (GA), Niblick Henbane (NJ), 90 Proof (TX), Oxblood (NY), Patriot (NC), The Press (NY), Pist'n'Broke (MI), The Radicts (NY), The Service (WI), Stars And Stripes (MA), Stormwatch (DE), The Templars (NY), The Toughskins (CA), U.S. Chaos (NJ), Those Unknown (NJ), The Uprise (PA), The Wretched Ones (NJ) & Y.D.L. (NY).

Select major International Oi! bands (past and present) include: Agent Bulldog (Sweden), The Bad Vultures (Japan), Becks Pistols (Germany), Cobra (Japan), Crikey Crew (Japan), Discocks (Japan), Dose Brutal (Brazil), The Fuck Ups (Norway), The Herberts (France), Impact (Canada), Klasse Kriminale (Italy), Kohu-63 (Finland), Komitern Sect (France), The Magnificent (Holland), Mata Ratos (Portugal), Nabat (Italy), Oxymoron (Germany), Pobel Und Gesocks (Germany), The Pride (Holland), Sideburns (Japan), Snix (France), The Stage Bottles (Germany), Die Lokalmatadore (Germany), The Vacant Lot (Canada), Vanilla Muffins (Switzerland), Virus 27 (Brazil), Warrior Kids (France), The West Side Boys (France), Zakarrak (Spain) & Zona A (Slovakia).

Other bands which move on the fringes of Oi! include: The Adicts, Angelic Upstarts, Anti-Nowhere League, Barbed Wire, Blaggers ITA, Blanks 77, The Blood, Casualties, Chron Gen, The Crack, Exploited, Frankie Flame, Lurkers, The Macc Lads, Menace, 999, Oi Polloi, One Way System, Peter and the Test Tube Babies, Toy Dolls, Red London, Redskins, Resistance 77, Rose Tattoo, (early)7 Seconds, Sham 69, Slaughter And The Dogs, Splodge, Stiff Little Fingers, Special Duties, The Suspects, The Swingin' Utters, Vice Squad, The Violators & Youth Brigade.

Some Oi!-focused record labels (past and present) include: Bird, Bleach, Bronco Bullfrog, Dim, Dojo, DSS, Force Majeure, GMM, Hammer, Havin' A Laugh, Headache, Helen Of Oi!, Kickback, Knock-Out, Link, Oi! Records, One By One, PunkCore, Scumfuck, Sta-Press, Step-1, S.P.E., Teenage Rebel, Twins, Vulture Rock & Walzwerk.

Some related newsgroups are: alt.punk, alt.punk.europe, alt.skinheads, alt.skinheads.arent.neo.nazis and alt.skinheads.moderated

[written and compiled by Lee 69 ( of "Do A Runner!" 'zine.]

3.6: Oi, Oi, Oi, Oi!!!

On 6 Mar 1996, Gerrard A. Lindsay wrote:

ever notice how many 'skinhead' songs and songs about skins that there are in the world?

for instance 'skinhead moonstomp', 'skinhead girl', 'skinhead jamboree', 'skinhead speaks his mind', 'skinheads don't fear', 'moonhop in London', 'skinhead moondust','where have all the bootboys gone','bootboy',oi! oi! oi!,'skinheads in stapress', 'resort bootboys', 'bring back the skins', 'chaos', 'clockwork skinhead','boots n braces','back with a bang','crucified' (by iron cross),'skinheads rule,ok', 'fresh and burning','joe hawkins'......

From: (Andy MacLaurin), (James F. Dugan), (Kali Holloway) (revised in v0.15 with corrections from James F. Dugan)

As for lyrics, here are the complete lyrics for Suburban Rebels as taken from the liner notes of The Business 1979-1989 on Blackout Records.

They're the sons and daughters of well off bankers
Tom Robinsons' army of trendy wankers
Flared blue jeans and anoracks,
With yellow streaks all down their backs
Who act so tough when [they're] on TV,
But trendy wankers don't scare me

Oi Oi Oi Chosen Few, (x2)
This is what we think of you
Suburban Rebels playing at reds
You would-be urban terrorists
You don't scare us with your badges and banners
You know fuck all about heavy manners.

You're the middle class kiddies from public school
Who write your slogans on toilet walls
Like Tony Benn's clones in plastic macks
You wave a hammer and sickle, never Union Jacks
Got lots of mouth when you're in a crowd
But when you're alone, you don't speak loud!

Of course, I have several versions, where the lyrics are changed but this is the closest to an "official" version I've found. I also have the lyrics to Harry May, Coventry, Shout it Out, No Emotions, Never Been Taken, Out in the Cold, Blind Justice, Do a Runner, Another Rebel Dead, Welcome to the Real World, Frontline, Mortgage Mentality, Handball, Smash the Discos, H-Bomb, Loud Proud and Punk, Real Enemy, Product, and Saturday's Heroes, if anyone is particularly interested. I may post them anyway, if I can scan them.

Jim Dugan

From: (JW), Eric Coomer (, (The Werewolf of London)

I was walkin' down the road with a dozen friends of mine
lookin' for some aggro, just to pass the time
we met a stupid hippy, he tried to run away
but I punched him in the nose, just to pass the time of day!

Great big boots
Great white laces
Jeans held up by
scarlet braces

get out of our way or get took for a ride
we've just go violence in our minds....

In article <15FEB96. 13777202.0082@IBM.UTM.EDU>, Sylvia Rowe writes:


(sung to Skrewdriver's version of "Green Fields of France")


Iron Mountain CHS, Tennessee

BRicha6796 ( writes:

And I think you have to send a dollar or something but it's the best Oi! mailorder catalog that I know of with very decent prices.

3.7: Skinheads Media List (v2.2 29DEC96)


Books and Films of interest to Skinheads; not necessarily an exhaustive list or required reading/ watching. Neither is this meant to be an indication of the quality of the content!

Additions, corrections, updates, comments and any detail to fill the gaps welcome, please email papaskin

* Section 1: BOOKS *

Quoting the author and title (and ISBN where given) at your local bookshop should be able to get you nearly all of the titles available. For those out of print - you'll have to rely on book searchers or your local 2nd Hand bookstores.

ST (Skinhead Times) Publishing in the UK publish a large range of these books and orders can be placed with them direct. They do not have a telephone ordering service, nor do they accept credit/debit cards.

If you want to know what titles they have available and the prices - drop them a line and ask for a catalogue (I'm sure they'd also appreciate a stamped addressed envelope or a little dosh).

Their address is:
ST Publishing
PO Box 12
DG11 3BW
United Kingdom.

N.B.: STP no longer publish the paper 'Skinhead Times' - it ceased being produced back in 1995 and they no longer have any back copies left.


Soccer (Football) Violence (Factual)


Everywhere We Go - Behind the Matchday Madness
  Dougie & Eddy Brimson, 1996, Headline Book Publishing

Steaming In (Journal of a Football Fan)				
  Colin Ward, 1989, Pocket Books	

In Your Blood (Football Culture in the late 1980's & Early 1990's)
  Richard Turner, 1990, Working Press	
  **Out of print**

Among The Thugs
  Bill Buford, 1991, Mandarin		

Bloody Casuals (Diary of a Football Hooligan)
  Jay Allan, 1989, Northern Books	




One For The Road
  Kid Stoker					

Nightshift (Growing Up in and around Wigan Casino 1974-1981)
  Pete McKenna, 1995, STP				

England Belongs to me
  Steve Goodman, Low Life (STP)	

Red London
  Stewart Home, 1994, AK Press		

Saturdays Heroes
  Joe Mitchell, Low Life (STP)	

The Complete Richard Allen Volume 1
(Skinhead, Suedehead, Skinhead Escapes)
  Richard Allen (aka James Moffatt), 1992, STP					

The Complete Richard Allen Volume 2
(Skinhead Girls, Sorts, Knuckle Girls)
  Richard Allen (aka James Moffatt), 1993, STP

The Complete Richard Allen Volume 3
(Trouble for Skinhead, Skinhead Farewell, Top Gear Skin)
  Richard Allen (aka James Moffatt), 1994, STP

The Complete Richard Allen Volume 4
(Boot Boys, Smoothies, Terrace Terrors)
  Richard Allen (aka James Moffatt), 1995, STP

The Complete Richard Allen Volume 5
(Mod Rule, Punk Rock, Dragon Skins)
  Richard Allen (aka James Moffatt), 1995, STP

The Complete Richard Allen Volume 6
(Glam, Teeny Bopper Idol, Demo)
  Richard Allen (aka James Moffatt)
  ** due to be published late 1996 by STP **

** The 18 individual Richard Allen novels were originally published in
** the 1970's by New English Library - all are now out of print.

  Gavin Anderson, 1996, Low Life (STP)


Graphic Novels


  Milligan, McCarthy & Swan, 1992, Tundra			




  Gavin Watson, 1994, STP				

Public Enemies				
  Leo Regan, 1993, Andre Deutsch	

Oi! The Photobook
  A.H van der Sluys, 1993, Double Shot (Roermond, Holland)


Reference - Skin, Ska & Mods


You're Wondering Now (A History of The Specials)
  Paul Williams, 1995, STP				

  Nick Knight, 1982, Omnibus Press	

Total Madness
  George Marshall, 1993, STP				

Spirit of '69 (A Skinhead Bible)
  George Marshall, 1991, STP				

Boss Sounds (Classic Skinhead Reggae)
  Marc Griffiths, 1995, STP					

Skinhead Nation
  George Marshall, 1996, STP							

Watching the Rich Kids
  Arthur Kay, 1992, STP
  **Out of print**

Skinhead Street Gangs
  Loren Christensen

Bad Manners
  George Marshall

  **Out of print**

  Richard Barnes

  **Out of print**

Scooter Boys
  Gareth Brown

The Two Tone Story
  George Marshall, 1990, STP
  **Out of print**

Skinheads Shaved For Battle: a cultural history of American Skinheads
  Jack Moore, 1993, Bowling Green (Ohio)					
  0879725826 (HB), 0879725834 (PB)
    - This book has been termed "somewhat 'objective' in their
      appraisal of White Power advocates" in the White Power FAQ,
      and has been consistently derided by the members of
      alt.skinheads. Stephen Martin (

Loud, Pround 'n' Punk - The Business
  Garry Fielding, 1996

The Two Tone Book for Rude Boys
  Omnibus Press
  ** Out of print**


Reference - Political


  Ingo Hasselbach, 1996, Chatto & Windus
    - From the German book: 'Die Abrechnung: Ein Neonazi Steigt Aus'
      by same author, 1993 by Aufbau-Verlag GmbH, ISBN: 3746670136
      this version contains photos (the English version is text only)

Blood in the Face: "The Klu Klux Klan, Aryan Nations, Nazi Skinheads
                                and the Rise of a New White Culture"
  James Ridgeway, 1990, Thunders Mouth Press


Reference - Punk


Punk Diary (1970-1979)
  George Gimarc, 1994, Vintage			

Sex Pistols File
  Ray Stevenson, 1978, Omnibus Press

Cranked Up Really High
   Stewart Home, 1995, Codex

* Section 2: FILMS *


Soccer (Football) Violence


The Firm
  Gary Oldman, Lesley Manville, Phil Davis
  Alan Clarke, 1989, UK

Trouble on the Terraces
  Narrated by Sean Bean
  Allan Sharpe, 1994, UK

  Reece Dinsdale, Warren Clarke, Sean Pertwee, cameo by Phil Davis
  Phil Davis, 1995, UK

Hooligan '96
  Narrated by Lesley Grantham
  Sharper Image Productions, 1996, UK


Mods & Skins


Romper Stomper
  Russell Crowe, Daniel Pollock, Jacqueline McKenzie, Alex Scott
  Geoffrey Wright, 1992, AUSTRALIA
    - A cinematic masterpiece, one of only two films
      which I have paid to see twice. - Stephen Martin

  Phil Daniels, Leslie Ash, Toyah Wilcox, Sting, Phil Davis, Mark Wingett
  Franc Roddam, 1979, UK

Made in Britain
  Tim Roth, Terry Richards, Bill Stewart, Eric Richard, Geoffrey Hutchings
  Alan Clarke, 1982, UK

  Tim Roth, Phil Daniels, Gary Oldman, Alfred Molina, Marion Bailey
  Alan Clarke, 1983, UK

A Clockwork Orange
  Malcolm McDowell, Patrick Magee, Adrienne Corri, Miriam Carlin
  Stanley Kubrick, 1971, UK
    - This film is not available in UK in cinema or video due to
      restrictions placed upon it by the Director.

Skinheads, The Second Coming of Hate
  Chuck Connors, Barbara Bain, Jason Culp, Elizabeth Sagal, Brian Brophy
  Greydon Clark, 1989, USA
    - "Skinheads: the Second Coming of Hate", is a nonsensical
      film whose only reasons for existence seemed to be to add
      to Chuck Connors' bank account, and to bolster the bruised
      egos of jocks everywhere. - Stephen Martin

Skins - The Movie
  Wings Hauser
  Wings Hauser,,USA
    - Has anyone seen this piece of trash?? If you havent...dont
      bother. What a load of bollocks. Its written by, directed
      by, and stars one pratt named Wings Hauser. Where the fuck
      did they dig up this guy??? Anyway.....obviously this guy
      was beaten up by some skins and this movie is his fantasy
      of what he wishes he could do if he actually had a set of
      testicles. All I can say is save any money hiring it.
      About the only good bit in it is the head skin's shirt,
      and the room with the giant swastika painted on the floor
      (if you're a neo-nazi). Save your money and forget it.
      Deth (

World of Skinhead
  Filming by Doug Aubrey
  Alan Robertson & Doug Aubrey for Channel 4 Television, 1995, UK
    - George Marshall was consultant on this programme and it is
      worth viewing alongside his book 'Skinhead Nation'. STP plan
      to release this on video at some point - no details announced
      as yet.

Skinhead Farewell
  BBC, 1996, UK
    - This TV programme on the life of Richard Allen was transmitted
      in the UK in March 1996. It is not available on video, nor is
      it planned to be released.

American Skin
  1996, USA
    - Elizabeth Marie Richardson ( writes:
      American Skin is a piece of shit. It's good to watch if you want
      a laugh.  No, I take that back, it's never good to watch. Most of
      the DC skins went to see it on opening night and we all got up
      and left after 15 min or less.  First of all it's a bonehead movie.
      Now I know Romper Stomper is also, but it was made well.
      Second of all, the sound and the cinematography is horrible as
      well as the plot.  I know someone who saw the whole thing and
      said the plot was something about this German (with a HORRIBLE
      fake accent, by the way) drug lord who was trying to infect the cities
      of America with this drug so he could wipe out the black people and
      there were these black drug dealers who would just kill little kids right
      and left and the skins were also on this bizarre misssion. The cop
      (played by the director, who was oh so tough while he was trying to
      sell his T shirts to us) who was chasing them for their hate crimes and
      the drug people kept flashing back to Cambodia (or something) and it
      turned out in the end that the Nazi guy was some guy that killed all
      these kids in Cambodia (Cambodia scenes brought to us by the foliage
      of the director's back yard) a long time ago. Every body bad dies. At
      least thats what I think he said. I don't know the guy who saw it said
      it was pretty confusing and stupid. I think I got up and left when the
      German referred to the boneheads as "our diminutive bald soldiers."

      One of the reasons we were so pissed (besides the general bad quality
      of the film) is because it was marketed as DC skins in general and the
      9:30 club supported it and bartenders acted in it.




Rude Boy
  Ray Gange, The Clash, Sara Hall, Johnny Green, Terry McQuade, 
  Liz Young, Jack Hazan & David Mingay, 1980, UK

The Great Rock 'n' Roll Swindle
  Mary Millington, Liz Frazer, Malcolm McLaren, The Sex Pistols
  Julian Temple, 1980, UK

Sid and Nancy
  Gary Oldman, Chloe Webb, David Hayman, Drew Schofield
  Alex Cox, 1986, UK

3.8: Magazine and Newspaper Articles About Skinheads

The Werewolf of London ( writes:

Check out the Jan. 8th issue of the New Yorker magazine, there's a long article (about 20 pages) by a former member of the German neo-Nazi movement. He has since had a change of heart and wised up to the total bullshit that neo-nazis spew, and now he gives talks at schools and stuff...I thought it was pretty interesting. His name was Ingo Hassebruck (?? Something like that) (Inkedsknhd) writes:

Check out the article in the new (April 1996) Esquire about "skinheads" in the military! Once again, all skins are neo-nazis! So are guys with shaved heads! Lets hear some positive stuff from military skins for a change.

NY Times and ADL Slander Skins Again

by the late Stephen Donaldson

June 28, 1995

Letter To The Editor
The New York Times
229 W. 43rd St.
NY NY 10036

The Times has once again (June 28) carried a one-sided report on skinheads, which takes the fund-raising propaganda of one group, the Anti-Defamation League (ADL), at face value to give readers a totally misleading impression of another group, skinheads.

If the Christian Coalition issued a report demonizing homosexuals you would include a response from gays; if the Environmental Defense Fund issued a report demonizing Western cattle ranchers you would try to put it in perspective. Why does the Times thow the principle of balanced news reporting out the window as soon as the word "skinhead" is uttered?

First you take an already skewed ADL "Survey of Neo-Nazi Skinheads" and then report its findings--not in quotations from an ADL spokesperson, either--as applicable to all skinheads ("skinheads remain....", "skinheads share...they read...they prefer....their disposition" "American skinheads are organized..."). You might as well take a report on "Right-Wing Militia Military Veterans" and then continually tell your readers "veterans favor....; veterans denounce...., etc." as if these militia members represented all veterans.

In fact, the ADL has accepted the preposterous claims of extreme right groups to the skinhead tradition---which actually began among Jamaican blacks in the 1960s, not "in England two decades ago"--and given them currency because having a scary enemy helps the ADL raise money. In so doing they are actually helping the Nazis by giving them legitimacy among working-class youth. Traditional skinheads denounce these imposters as "boneheads" who have no respect for the long tradition of racial integration which in fact has characterized the skinhead movement. Anyone who has attended skinhead music events in New York City can see for themselves that black, Hispanic, Oriental and Jewish skinheads are common. Nationally and internationally traditional working-class skinheads far outnumber the boneheads, financed by wealthy right-wing patrons, who are trying to steal a proud tradition.

All the "skinzine" publications I have seen are determinedly non-rascist, and the main one in New York, "No Escape," is edited by a black skinhead. So is "Carry No Banners," the leading Midwestern skinzine. The ADL report may have "found no discernible national skinhead organization in the United States," but they either didn't do much research or deliberately omitted traditional skinheads, since they omitted the nationally organized non-rascist United Front organization, now headquartered in Ohio. Maybe they couldn't handle the UF's racially integrated logo.

Traditional skinheads often proclaim that they have been crucified by the sensation-seeking mass media. As a former newspaper reporter, I like to defend good papers like The Times. But you continually prove their point. As a responsible paper, you should be talking with real skinheads, especially here in New York where you are published, and report the truth, not just the ADL's propaganda. Why don't you talk to someone from SkinHeads Against Racial Prejudice (SHARP), which has chapters around the nation and in New York, for example?

The writer reported on alternative music for a number of publications, including Maximum Rock & Roll, New York's Under the Volcano, and, in 1994, the Skinhead Times, under the name "Donny the Punk".

Don't forget to check out into and read the FAQ for more information on Ska and it's relationship with Skinhead culture.

3.9: What about 'zines?

Skinhead/Ska/Punk/Oi! 'Zines

(All apolitical & non-racist!)

Do A Runner! Oi!/Street-punk 'Zine
c/o Sound Views
96 Henry St. #5W
Brooklyn, NY 11201-1713

$2(US)/$3(World) for issue #1
Price subject to change for issue #2 due out carca May 1st, 1997.
All rates in US funds.

L'ERE BETE fanzine
C.P. 27501
Laval, Quebec

fax: (514)686-7613
Contact for prices.

Oink! Skinzine
PO Box 46
Cresskill, NY 07626

tele: (201)801-5515
internet: "The Skinternet"
$2(US)/$3(World) for issue #3
$5(US)/$8(World) for all issues afterwards (each include a 7")
All rates in US funds.

Teenage Warning! Street Music 'Zine